Prostate cancer (PCa) is the 2nd most frequently diagnosed cancer in males worldwide and the most frequently diagnosed in Europe. Serum prostate specific antigen (sPSA) is the most commonly used biochemical test in PCa diagnosis. However, as a diagnostic parameter sPSA is associated with considerable analytical problems. As N-glycosylation patterns of sPSA show diagnostic potential, we determined if N-glycosylation of urinary prostate proteins is usable in the diagnosis of PCa. Significant differences were observed between the urinary N-glycosylation of healthy volunteers, patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and PCa. The urinary glycosylation marker improved the diagnosis of PCa by adding them to the current models, especially in the diagnostic grey zone of sPSA concentrations between 4 and 10 μg/L. Furthermore, a link was noticed between urinary N-glycosylation and extracellular vesicles in urine. Urinary N-glycosylation could therefore be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers in PCa, although further validation of the biomarker is warranted.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2017;11(3):126–128)