P. Vuylsteke MD, J.C. Goeminne MD, S. Henry MD, V. Vanhaudenarde MD, B. Willemart MD, P. Marchettini MD, D. Taylor MD
Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes are a sign of immune mediated reaction of the host against the tumour. They are considered as a positive prognostic marker and may also have a predictive role for the use of certain therapies. The challenge remains to convert tumours with low tumour infiltrating lymphocytes into tumours with high tumour infiltrating lymphocytes in order to enhance the immune mediated effect of therapies.
PIK3Ca mutation is one of the most frequent mutations encountered in breast cancer, particularly in hormone receptor positive cancer in which it can confer resistance to hormonal therapy. Therefore, a lot of effort has been made to target the PI3K-pathway with drugs, and to find a way to predict their efficacy: some results have been achieved; in particular with the detection of PIK3Ca in circulating DNA, but many questions still remain. This article provides an overview concerning these two biomarkers, and attempts to determine whether they could be used in clinical practice today.
L. Decoster MD, PhD, F. Cornélis MD, E. Joosens MD, S. Henry MD, P. Specenier MD, PhD, P. Clement MD, PhD, On behalf of the Thyroid Task Force of the BSMO
Thyroid cancers are rare diseases and include types that range from indolent localised differentiated carcinomas to fulminant and lethal anaplastic disease. Until recently, treatment options for advanced or metastatic radio-iodine refractory thyroid cancer were limited. Recently kinase inhibitors targeting angiogenesis and other pathways have shown promising activity.