V. Deschoolmeester PhD, E. Smits PhD, M. Peeters MD, PhD, J.B. Vermorken MD, PhD
Colorectal cancer is one of the most prevalent types of cancer worldwide and a leading cause of cancer related mortality. Although chemo- and radiation therapy can improve survival rates, it is imperative to integrate more advanced treatment options; therefore, rationally designed immunotherapeutic strategies are being explored as adjuvant treatment. In this review, we will discuss the study design and results of the clinical trials that have been conducted in colorectal cancer patients using autologous and allogeneic tumour cell vaccines, peptide vaccines, viral vector based vaccines, dendritic cell based vaccines, and antibody-based immunotherapy as well as some future recommendations.
T. Vandamme MD, PhD, V. Deschoolmeester PhD, P. Pauwels MD, PhD, M. Peeters MD, PhD
Targeted therapy with bevacuzimab, cetuximab and panitumumab has expanded the treatment options in metastatic colorectal cancer. Predictive tumour markers for treatment with targeted therapy that have been suggested are Epithelial Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor (VEGFR) expression, KRAS mutation and BRAF mutation status, loss of PTEN and PIK3CA mutation status. Of these, only KRAS has made it into clinical practice. KRAS mutation is a negative predictor for response to cetuximab EGFR inhibitors. No predictive tumour marker for bevacizumab has been identified. In this review, the current evidence on KRAS, BRAF, PTEN, PIK3CA, EGFR and VEGFR expression as predictive tumour markers for targeted therapy is reviewed. (BELG J MED ONCOL 2012;6:52–57)