G. El Hachem MD, Y. Jounblat MD, A. Awada MD, PhD, A. Gombos MD
Triple-negative breast cancer is a heterogeneous subtype of breast carcinoma lacking the expression of oestrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor 2 receptors. For many decades, cytotoxic chemotherapy has been the standard of care offering only a short-living disease control. Knowing its poor outcome and aggressive behaviour, researchers are trying to find new therapeutic options hoping to improve the survival of this population. Many cytotoxic and targeted therapies were tested without major benefit. However, in the era of molecular and mutational classification of tumours, as well as the immune mediated mechanisms of proliferation and progression, the trials are currently oriented towards the identification of potential targets in the tumoral heterogenic environment. Here, we present a review of literature concerning the potential anti-neoplastic options and novel therapies for metastatic triple-negative breast cancers: new cytotoxic agents, new targeted therapies, anti-angiogenic agents, antibody-drug conjugates, poly-ADP ribose transferase inhibitors and immunotherapy. Many agents are promising, yet not powerful enough to get approvals for use into clinical practice.