The characteristics of carcinogenesis are discussed in relation to prostate cancer. Some of these are already used as treatment targets in daily clinical practice, while in some, medications proved to be ineffective to interfere with these mechanisms of carcinogenesis.

Currently, treatments that have shown efficacy are addressing the mechanism of sustained proliferative activity, while there are some indications that immune modulation and agents interfering with DNA repair may play a role in the treatment of prostate cancer.

Other aspects of carcinogenesis need more study in patients with prostate cancer to show a benefit and they must be the scope of future research.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2017;11(3):87–91)