Delirium is frequent in cancer patients but often misdiagnosed. When severe, it causes distress not only for patients but also for families and professional caregivers. Physicians and nurses involved in the care of oncology patients should receive adequate training in the use of diagnostic tools for delirium. Identifying and reversing the underlying cause(s) of delirium are the best approaches because of the morbidity/mortality of delirium, although it is reversible most of the time. Prevention is also crucial, while pharmacological delirium management is generally not recommended in most cases. These first Belgian society of medical oncology (BSMO) guidelines aim to give a practical overview directly useful in practice.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2022;16(4):166–75)