Heavy ion therapy is an emerging technique in radiotherapy. It provides highly conformal dose distributions compared to those currently used with photons. These superior beam properties allow increasing the target dose without enhancing the dose to critical structures and/or offer the possibility to reduce the dose to critical structures without compromising the dose to the target. Proton therapy infrastructure is being implemented and carbon or other ion therapy, which, in addition to its physical conformity is also biologically very attractive, has become available as well.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2015;9(3):87–94)