In this article, the most important new studies presented at ESMO 2017 in Madrid in early (EBC) and metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are summarised. In EBC, 5 topics are highlighted: integration of PI3K and CDK4/6 inhibition in the neoadjuvant treatment of oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) EBC, dual endocrine blockade as adjuvant treatment in ER+ EBC, escalated adjuvant treatment in human epidermal growth factor receptor positive (HER2+) EBC and small tumours that can also show an aggressive course. In MBC, 4 topics are discussed: predicting immunogenicity in MBC, abscopal effect in MBC, confirmed benefit of PARP inhibitors in BRCA mutated MBC and CDK4/6 inhibition in first-line MBC.

(BELG J ONCOL 2017;11(7):309–314)