This report will highlight 8 important phase III studies presented during ASCO 2015 and 5 small but promising phase I/II trials. This year’s ASCO will be remembered for the paradigm shift and step forward in the treatment of lung cancer with immunotherapy via checkpoint inhibitors. Two important phase III trials in second-line NSCLC with anti-PD-1 inhibition were presented at ASCO this year and are discussed below. Also in small cell lung cancer and mesothelioma this approach seems promising.

Other highlights of the ASCO 2015 congress in the field of thoracic oncology include new targeted therapies for patients with defined molecular targets and for patients with acquired resistance after first-line first generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) or first generation ALK inhibitors.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2015;9:122–7)