The introduction of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment arsenal of NSCLC patients revolutionised the way these patients are treated. Similarly, the development of several next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeting activating EGFR and ALK mutations/rearrangements, has changed the treatment paradigm for patients with oncogene-driven NSCLC. While these agents were initially used in the relapsed setting, both immune checkpoint inhibitors and next-generation TKIs were now successfully tested in the first-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC patients. ESMO 2018 featured the presentation of a long list of these trials. In addition, efforts are being made to improve the outcome of patients with stage III NSCLC and also in this setting interesting data were presented.