Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is common in cancer patients. It is associated with poor outcomes and increased mortality. In fact, VTE is known as the second most common cause of mortality in cancer patients. Although the benefit of thromboprophylaxis is clear for acutely ill hospitalised cancer patients, routine prophylaxis is not recommended for all ambulatory cancer patients. The reason is the risk to treat a high proportion of patients who do not need treatment and an increased risk of major bleeding. Here we highlight the importance of adequate risk assessment models to select patients at an increased VTE risk and present pivotal trial results that form the basis for the latest international treatment guidelines related to thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2022;16(2):53–9)