Lung cancer is a frequent malignancy worldwide with a high mortality rate. Most patients are diagnosed in advanced or metastatic stages that are not amenable to curative treatments, resulting in a poor overall survival rate. Screening programs could provide a solution to this problem, but it is unclear whether the great cost and possible risks that patients must face justify their implementation for lung cancer. This manuscript aims to show the published evidence related to screening programs for lung cancer and the importance and challenges of developing such programs in Latin America.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2017;11(5):242–248)