Intravesical BCG is the standard of care in the treatment of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer as it decreases the risk of recurrence and progression. Although it has been used for more than 40 years, it is currently still superior over chemotherapy and other immunotherapies. The worldwide shortage of BCG stresses the need for alternatives of BCG, for which the only curative treatment option outside clinical studies is an early radical cystectomy.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2021;15(2):57-62)