In recent years, considerable advances have been achieved in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. The discovery of EGFR mutations and ALK translocations has changed clinical management. However, several mechanisms carrying resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been reported, as well as resistance to ALK-targeted drugs.

In this review we will focus on non-small cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations and ALK translocations, providing a suggested therapeutic algorithm for treating these patients.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2017;11(3):110–121)