Historically, surgery, with or without chemotherapy, has been the standard of care for patients with earlystage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). When chemotherapy was used, a platinum-based doublet regimen has been the long-standing standard adjuvant treatment for resected patients with stage II-III disease. However, the clinical benefit that can be gained with adjuvant chemotherapy is limited, with a five-year overall survival (OS) benefit of only 5%. Moreover, despite surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy, most patients with early-stage NSCLC eventually die from disease recurrence.1 In an attempt to improve on this, several clinical trials have assessed the potential impact of integrating immunotherapy into the neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment algorithm for patients with early-stage NSCLC.