The incidence of melanoma has increased continuously these last decades. Fortunately, cure is possible in most cases thanks to diagnosis at an early stage. Nevertheless, in some instances, melanoma is diagnosed at later stages and in other cases relapses occur. Moreover, melanoma is the deadliest cutaneous cancer and more importantly the most common origin of death due to cancer in young people. Thankfully though, hope for these patients has been increasing during the past three decades with the increased insight in the underlying oncogenic mutations. This progress has opened up new perspectives for etiological targeted therapies. This review will focus on the recent advances in melanoma treatment. (BELG J MED ONCOL 2012;6:194–200)