Approximately 25% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are being diagnosed in an early stage of the disease. Even though these patients are eligible for radical surgery, the five-year survival rates for fully resected early-stage NSCLC remains disappointing. In fact, for patients who receive adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery, recurrence rates are high, with approximately half of patients suffering from disease relapse. The design of molecularly oriented studies and the availability of novel potent and less toxic targeted agents paved the way for the evaluation of these drugs in the (neo)adjuvant setting for patients with early-stage NSCLC harbouring oncogenic driver mutations. Here we summarise the results obtained with EGFR-targeted drugs in early-stage NSCLC.