New anticancer drugs are continuously developed and show statistically significant differences compared to the standard treatment. However, their clinical impact is not always shown. In this review, two systems to evaluate the meaningful clinical benefit are discussed: the ESMO-MCBS, developed by ESMO, and the ASCO value framework, proposed by ASCO. Both systems evaluate clinical meaningful effects of new anticancer drugs based on available clinical research, and grade them according to the system they developed. Whereas the ESMO-MCBS is a tool directed to guide development and health care system professionals, the ASCO value framework is a tool to help the medical oncologist and the patient to make an informed decision in relation to the value of a new treatment, including costs.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2022;16(7):355–9)