Human drug research, and cancer drug research in particular, heavily relies on traditional tumour models such as 2D cell cultures and xenografts to develop and test novel therapeutics. Organoids are a novel 3D cell platform derived from stem cells, allowing to faithfully replicate human tissue in an in vitro environment, bridging the ease of use of 2D cell cultures and the biological relevance of xenografts. In this manuscript, we introduce organoids to the oncological community and demonstrate the major advantages and challenges of this exciting new technology. Cancer organoids could be the next major step in tumour research and drug development, ultimately leading to highly precise personalised medicine.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2021;15(2):63-8)