After many years of research and many failed attempts, finally the cancer treatments that act on the immune system have paid off. There are several ways to act on the immune system of cancer patients, including vaccination, genetic modification of cells and the inhibition of checkpoint molecules. The latter have had a great development in the last 5 years, not only in the immunogenic tumours but also in other tumours considered non-immunogenic such as lung cancer. In this review we are focusing on the latest findings of immunotherapeutic treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We review those studies that have led to the approval of some of the drugs targeting immune checkpoints as well as those studies with immune checkpoint inhibitors with the potential to play a role in the treatment of NSCLC.
(BELG J MED ONCOL 2017;11(6):277–283)