The association of cancer with pregnancy is rare, but a rising incidence is expected because of the increasing maternal age at first pregnancy. A cancer diagnosis during pregnancy reveals several medical and ethical dilemmas because diagnostic procedures and treatments may compromise foetal health. But on the other hand, delay in diagnosis and treatment should be prevented since this can adversely affect maternal outcome. There are no data suggesting that the termination of pregnancy improves the prognosis and the awareness of the feasibility of cancer treatment during pregnancy is growing. The oncological and obstetrical management of a patient that is diagnosed with cancer during pregnancy requires a multidisciplinary approach, taking the patient’s perspective into account. This review summarises the current knowledge on incidence, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, obstetrical and neonatal outcome of cancer during pregnancy.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2018;12(7):319–325)