Thanks to our improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, multiple new treatment agents have appeared and extended our therapeutic possibilities. Novel molecular-targeted agents have vastly replaced cytokine therapies but pointed out new challenges in finding the optimal sequence and/or combination in treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. This review focusses on the emerging therapeutic options according to the European Association of Urology guidelines in the rapidly changing renal cell carcinoma landscape.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2018;12(6):293–300)