Thanks to our improved understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of metastatic renal cell carcinoma, multiple new treatment agents have appeared and extended our therapeutic possibilities. Novel molecular-targeted agents have vastly replaced cytokine therapies but pointed out new challenges in finding the optimal sequence and/or combination in treating metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. This review focusses on the emerging therapeutic options according to the European Association of Urology guidelines in the rapidly changing renal cell carcinoma landscape.
G. De Win MD, T. Van den Broeck , B. Van Cleynenbreugel MD, PhD, F. Claus MD, PhD, E. Lerut MD, PhD
Schistosomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Western European countries. However, due to the popularity of exotic vacations, more and more western patients can get infected by schistosomiasis. Awareness of this disease is important, as an infection can lead to non-transitional cell bladder carcinoma in the long run (squamous cell carcinoma; SCC). In this article, we present a rare case of urogenital schistosomiasis in a 27-year old Belgian male. Extensive patient history together with eosinophil count and bladder biopsy, is the key to making the diagnosis. Medical treatment with praziquantel is often sufficient. (BELG J MED ONCOL 2012;6:97–101)