In this article the authors reviewed literature regarding mucinous ovarian carcinoma (MOC), which represents a special challenge as a rare ovarian tumour (about 3%) with unique clinical characteristics as compared to serous ovarian carcinoma (SOC). MOC is mostly diagnosed at an early stage and is generally associated with an excellent prognosis. However, later stages usually remain resistant to medical treatment, with early deaths occurring. Overall, advanced MOC patients seem 2.3 times more likely to die of their tumour as compared to SOC patients. Anatomo-pathological diagnosis and distinguishing between primary and metastasised MOC remains difficult and sometimes inconclusive, despite the contribution of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and/or molecular biology. The preservation of fertility is currently conceivable in younger patients with an early stage disease.

(BELG J MED ONCOL 2020;14(6):246-53)